Tuesday, October 03, 2006

Masalah Legalitas Pemilihan Langsung Gubernur DKI


Masalah Legalitas Pemilihan Langsung Gubernur DKI Jakarta*

oleh Ari Juliano Gema


Meski pemilihan kepala daerah DKI Jakarta baru akan berlangsung pada bulan Oktober 2007, namun gonjang-ganjingnya sudah mulai dirasakan saat ini. Salah satu isu yang berkembang saat ini adalah masalah legalitas pemilihan Gubernur DKI Jakarta secara langsung. Berbeda dengan pemerintahan daerah yang lain, DKI Jakarta memiliki undang-undang tersendiri yang tertuang dalam UU No. 34 Tahun 1999 tentang Pemerintahan Propinsi DKI Jakarta (UU No. 34/1999).
Masalahnya, UU No. 34/1999 ini masih mengatur pemilihan kepala daerah dengan sistem perwakilan, belum pemilihan secara langsung. Padahal pemerintahan daerah yang lain telah mengacu pada ketentuan dalam UU No. 32 Tahun 2004 tentang Pemerintahan Daerah (UU No. 32/2004), yang mengatur bahwa kepala daerah dan wakil kepala daerah dipilih secara langsung oleh rakyat di daerah yang bersangkutan.

Peran DPR

Saat ini, DPR mulai mengambil ancang-ancang untuk melakukan revisi terhadap UU No.34/1999 tersebut agar pemilihan kepala daerah di DKI Jakarta dapat dilakukan secara langsung sesuai dengan ketentuan UU No. 32/2004. Namun demikian, upaya untuk melakukan revisi terhadap UU No. 34/1999 tersebut bukanlah merupakan hal yang mudah setidak-tidaknya karena alasan sebagai berikut, pertama, tunggakan RUU yang mendesak untuk dibahas oleh DPR saat ini masih demikian banyaknya, sehingga pembahasan revisi UU No. 34/1999 mungkin masih akan menunggu giliran.

Kedua, bukan tidak mungkin revisi yang seharusnya hanya ditujukan agar pemilihan kepala daerah di DKI Jakarta dapat dilakukan secara langsung, kemudian malah melebar kepada hal-hal lain yang tidak ada kaitannya dengan pemilihan kepala daerah tersebut. Hal ini tentu akan memperlambat pembahasan revisi UU No. 34/99 tersebut. Oleh karena itu, sangat wajar kiranya apabila ada pernyataan dari beberapa anggota DPR di media massa yang menyangsikan pembahasan revisi UU No. 34/1999 tersebut dapat diselesaikan sebelum proses pemilihan kepala daerah di DKI Jakarta dimulai.

Langkah Hukum

Menyikapi permasalahan di atas, pada dasarnya ada beberapa langkah hukum yang tersedia untuk menyelesaikan masalah tersebut. Pertama, agar proses pemilihan kepala daerah di DKI Jakarta dapat diselenggarakan sesuai jadwal, pemerintah dapat segera menetapkan Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-Undang (Perpu) yang merevisi UU No. 34/1999 tersebut agar pemilihan kepala daerah di DKI Jakarta dapat dilakukan secara langsung. Namun, mengingat UUD 1945 menentukan bahwa Perpu hanya dapat ditetapkan oleh pemerintah apabila terdapat hal ihwal kegentingan yang memaksa, langkah ini mungkin akan menimbulkan perdebatan mengenai apakah terselenggaranya pemilihan kepala daerah di DKI Jakarta secara langsung merupakan suatu kegentingan yang memaksa.

Kedua, tetap melaksanakan pemilihan kepala daerah di DKI Jakarta secara langsung dengan mendasarkan pada ketentuan dalam UU No. 32/2004. Langkah ini berlandaskan pada doktrin hukum “lex posteriori derogat legi fori” yang mengandung arti apabila undang-undang yang baru bertentangan dengan undang-undang yang lama mengenai suatu materi yang sama, maka yang berlaku adalah undang-undang yang baru.

Dalam ketentuan penutup pada UU No. 32/2004 sendiri telah diterangkan bahwa semua peraturan perundang-undangan yang berkaitan dengan pemerintahan daerah sepanjang belum diganti dan tidak bertentangan dengan UU No. 32/2004 dinyatakan tetap berlaku, atau dengan kata lain bahwa semua peraturan perundang-undangan yang sudah diganti dan bertentangan dengan UU No. 32/2004 tersebut menjadi tidak berlaku. Kata-kata “sudah diganti dan bertentangan” merupakan dua unsur yang membuat suatu peraturan perundang-undangan menjadi tidak berlaku dengan diberlakukannya UU No. 32/2004 ini.

Namun, langkah ini mungkin akan menimbulkan perdebatan, karena meski ketentuan mengenai pemilihan kepala daerah dalam UU No. 34/1999 bertentangan dengan ketentuan dalam UU No. 32/2004, namun tidak ada ketentuan yang secara tegas menyebutkan bahwa eksistensi UU No. 34/1999 digantikan oleh keberlakuan UU No. 32/2004. Oleh karena itu, seharusnya UU No. 34/1999 tidak dapat dikesampingkan begitu saja karena sudah jelas tidak terpenuhi salah satu unsur yang membuat ketentuan dalam UU No. 34/1999 tidak berlaku.

Ketiga, perwakilan warga DKI Jakarta mengajukan permohonan uji materi UU No. 34/1999 kepada Mahkamah Konstitusi. Argumen dasar dari pengajuan uji materi tersebut adalah bahwa beberapa pasal mengenai pemilihan kepala daerah dalam UU No. 34/1999 bertentangan dengan Pasal 18 ayat (4) UUD 1945 yang mengamanatkan bahwa Gubernur, Bupati dan Walikota dipilih secara demokratis.

Apabila pasal-pasal yang menghambat pemilihan kepala daerah secara langsung tersebut jadi dihapuskan, maka berlakulah ketentuan dalam UU No. 32/2004 dan peraturan pelaksanaannya untuk mengisi kekosongan peraturan mengenai penyelenggaraan pemilihan kepala daerah di DKI Jakarta. Peraturan pelaksanaan UU No. 32/2004 itu antara lain PP No. 6 Tahun 2005 juncto PP No. 17 Tahun 2005 yang mengatur lebih lanjut mekanisme pemilihan kepala daerah secara langsung.

Langkah hukum yang ketiga ini pada dasarnya lebih aman dibandingkan dengan dua langkah hukum sebelumnya, sepanjang Mahkamah Konstitusi memutuskan sesuai dengan yang dimohonkan. Apabila Mahkamah Konstitusi memutuskan untuk menghapus pasal-pasal lain diluar yang dimohonkan dan ternyata ada pihak-pihak yang berkepentingan dengan keberadaan pasal-pasal tersebut, maka sudah barang tentu akan menimbulkan polemik juga.

* Tulisan ini pernah dimuat di harian Bisnis Indonesia tanggal 15 September 2006

104 Comments:

At 4/10/06 16:04, Anonymous wikan said...

kalau yang terjadi sekarang bagaimana?
apakah ada perwakilan warga jakarta yang telah mengajukan uji materi ke makhamah konstitusi seperti yang mas ari sarankan. ataukah pilkada jakarta akhirnya hanya main terabas saja, dan akhirnya jika dipertanyakan aspek legalnya diabaikan, seperti beberapa peristiwa yang lalu?

 
At 4/10/06 16:13, Anonymous Ari Juliano Gema said...

Halo Wikan,
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